A history of shoe production in the US, 1960s and beyond by Andrew Dessler, Tom Jones, and Mike ZunigaA look back at the US shoe manufacturing revolution from 1848 through the late 20th century.
The story of how shoe manufacturing emerged as a global force in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and how it transformed American life and culture is told in this new collection of articles.
A decade ago, the shoe manufacturing boom began as a new era of American capitalism, fueled by the growth of the railroads and the rise in factory employment.
But as the railroad industry and manufacturing became more centralized, the manufacturing boom became more fragmented.
Today, shoe manufacturing accounts for only a fraction of total US factory employment, but it remains one of the country’s largest industries.
In 1960, a shoe manufacturing plant in Ohio was employing over 2,000 workers.
Today, shoe manufacturers make everything from shoes to sportswear to handbags, shoes for the office and office accessories.
But the shoe industry has also been responsible for many of the biggest shifts in American life, from the development of the modern automobile to the rise and fall of the Big Three shoe companies: Nike, Adidas, and Under Armour.
Today’s shoe manufacturing is also responsible for the rise, fall, and resurgence of a whole host of industries, from pharmaceutical manufacturing to pharmaceutical manufacturing for health care and pharmaceuticals for other industries.
The history of the American shoe industry is a story of both the rise as well as the fall of an industry.
In the late 1940s, shoe production was a major business in the United States, employing more than half of all the workers.
In the 1950s, as the Great Depression hit the country, shoe factories in the Midwest began shutting down and some of the jobs went overseas.
In 1951, the US government imposed tariffs on many shoes imported from China.
But by 1956, after the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, the shoes factories in that country had gone back to production.
In 1961, a few shoe factories reopened, but the US economy had already been shaken by the Great Recession and by the war in Vietnam.
The recession in 1962 saw the collapse of the rubber industry, which had been one of America’s largest export industries.
The American economy was in a recession and manufacturing jobs were disappearing.
In 1965, President Lyndon Johnson signed the Economic Opportunity Act into law, creating the Federal Minimum Wage Act.
This law established the federal minimum wage at $2.25 an hour, a federal minimum that had been $2,842 in 1964.
It increased the federal unemployment benefit, and the federal government also gave workers a wage increase, making it possible for the government to pay workers more than the minimum wage.
The act was signed by President John F. Kennedy, who said that it was “the best possible wage and hour legislation we could put into law.”
In 1965, the federal Minimum Wage was $5.25 per hour.
By the early 1970s, the rise had slowed, and by 1976, the rate of increase was falling.
But over the next few years, the minimum rate fell.
By 1976, a national minimum wage of $5 per hour was the minimum the federal average worker needed to live on.
By 1978, the U.S. was in the midst of a recession.
In 1979, President Jimmy Carter signed the Fair Labor Standards Act into the law, requiring the federal overtime pay for federal workers to be paid at least $2 per hour, and it was also set to rise to $7 per hour by 1982.
The Fair Labor Act was a significant milestone in the evolution of the federal labor force and the economy.
By 1982, the average federal wage was $9.38 per hour for an average worker, and a federal overtime rate of $2 an hour for all federal workers.
By 1986, the Fair Minimum Wage law was in effect and federal overtime for federal employees had risen to $10 per hour over the previous two years.
In 1989, the Reagan administration passed the Fairness Act.
The Fair Labor Law, passed with President George H.W. Bush in 1988, set a minimum wage for all workers, and allowed federal contractors to raise the minimum hourly wage for federal contractors up to the national average wage.
By 1990, the national minimum hourly rate was $7.25, and all federal contractors could increase their federal hourly wage to $9 per hour in the next two years, raising the federal federal average hourly rate to $12 per hour and the average hourly wage in the private sector to $14.75 per hour as of the same year.
The minimum wage was set to increase to $15.25 in 1990 and to $16.25 by the same date.
By 1992, the Great American Slowdown was starting to set in.
As manufacturing jobs began to decline and as workers became more expensive to hire, the United Kingdom and Canada began to impose